Pumpkin (Latin Cucurbita) – a genus of herbaceous plants of the family Pumpkin (Cucurbitaceae). Annual or perennial hard-rough or hairy grasses; creeping on the ground and clinging with branched tendrils stems covered with more or less large lobed leaves. Large, yellow or white flowers sit alone or in bunches; flowers unisexual (monoecious plants). Calyx and corolla bell-shaped or funnel-bell-shaped about 5 (rarely 4-7) shares; stamens soldered by anthers to the head, anthers twisted; 3-5 staminodes and pistils are developed in the female flower, with a thick short column, with a three- or five-lobed stigma and with a lower, 3-5-nested multi-seeded ovary. The fruit is a pumpkin, usually with a hard outer layer (bark) and with numerous flattened, framed by thick swelling seeds, without protein. Pumpkin is an annual herbaceous plant of the pumpkin family. Cultivated in almost all countries. Pumpkin was first grown in the New World. Here, for those 6-7 thousand years, many different cultivars of this plant were bred. Today, the pumpkin family numbers about 130 genera and 900 species, most of which grow in tropical and subtropical areas from rainforests to deserts.
How is it grown?
Pumpkin cultivation process: If you have bought untreated seed, MAXIM XL is available for self-pickling: 1 ml of MAXIM XL is required for 1 kg of seed. Dilute 1 ml of Maxim XL with 30 ml of water and mix the seed thoroughly. The seeds are then well dried. Seed quality plays an important role in intensive land use with crop compactors. Only high-quality seeds can be expected to produce a high yield. When selecting seeds by specific gravity, they are immersed in a 3 – 5% solution of salt, all emerged are removed, and those that have settled to the bottom are washed in clean water and dried. For sowing it is better to use seeds 3 – 4 years ago. If fresh seeds are taken, ie the previous year, they must be warmed for 2 – 4 hours at a temperature of 60ºC, which significantly increases plant productivity. An herbaceous plant with creeping more or less branched stems and a strongly branched root system. There are also bush forms with shortened shoots. 100 g of pumpkin contains (based on fresh weight) 85-95 g of water, 1-2 g of protein, 0.1-0.5 g of fat, 2-5 g of sugars and 10-20 mg of vitamin C, energy value 80 -150 kJ. Because pumpkin is not as juicy as watermelon or melon, and has a denser flesh, it is much more commonly used to make compotes and cooked than dessert or salad. Pumpkins are grown almost exclusively in the open ground, closed ground is most often used for growing seedlings. Pumpkin has about the same requirements for growing conditions as cucumber in the open ground, but is characterized by greater resistance to adverse conditions, especially temperature, and therefore better suited to cultivation in the open ground. Germination and growth of pollen occurs at much lower temperatures than in cucumber (14-15 ° C) and melon (18 ° C). Warm weather and good moisture supply are conducive to growth, while a pumpkin can grow without irrigation longer than a cucumber. Due to the high sensitivity to wind, pumpkin is often recommended to be grown between corn plants. Pumpkin prefers loose, humus-rich soils and is responsive to organic fertilizers. Pumpkin does not tolerate re-cultivation of other pumpkins, which must also be taken into account when growing it on compost heaps. You can speed up the harvest by growing seedlings in greenhouses. In 10-centimeter pots sow 2-3 seeds, closing them to a depth of 2-3 cm. The seeds germinate at a temperature of 15-20 ° C. In the future, maintain a temperature of 18/14 ° C (day / night). After 3 weeks, the seedlings form 2 leaves and are ready for planting. To increase resistance to adverse temperatures, the plants are hardened. Seedlings are planted in the ground in mid-May, when the threat of night frosts passes. The standing density of zucchini is 0.5-1 plant per 1 m2, in creeping species of pumpkin the standing density is reduced to 0.3 plants / m2. Cultivation on mulching film has proved itself well. In this case direct sowing in soil is possible. Seed care is limited to repeated loosening to a small depth. By the end of the growing season, weed control is sometimes required (manual weeding). There is no need for special pruning of plants. Control of diseases and pests is of secondary importance. Only viral diseases (necessary control of vectors) and late autumn powdery mildew damage cause significant damage. Harvesting and storage: The pumpkin is harvested before the first frosts after reaching full maturity. At fruits leave a petiole about 10 cm long. Depending on productivity of a plant (on the average 4-5 fruits on a plant) remove more or less heavy single fruits. The weight of individual pumpkins can reach 120 kg, and the yield is more than 1000 c / ha. Pumpkin can be stored for several weeks to several months. The optimum temperature in the first two weeks of storage is 24-30 ° C, during which time ripening occurs and the crust hardens. After that, the storage temperature is reduced to 10-13 ° C.
In this case, pumpkin seeds are not only useful in terms of treatment, but also very high in calories. Pumpkin seeds contain up to 52 percent oil and up to 30 percent protein, zinc salt and a lot of vitamin E. Pumpkin seeds also contain many different amino acids and vitamin E, which prevents premature aging and stimulates the function of the gonads.
Pumpkin seed oil has antioxidant, antisclerotic, antiulcer, hepatoprotective, choleretic, antidisuric, antiatherosclerotic effects. It is used in cirrhosis and liver dystrophy, hepatitis, cholecystocholangitis, dyskinesia of the biliary tract; peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum, gastritis; hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis; prostate adenoma. Pumpkin is a very tasty and healthy vegetable that contains a large amount of carotene and vitamins. Pumpkin pulp contains a lot of valuable vitamin D for the child’s body, which enhances vital functions and accelerates the growth of children. The fiber of this vegetable is easily absorbed even by a weakened body, which is why pumpkin dishes are recommended for therapeutic and prophylactic nutrition. Because pumpkin contains many salts of copper, iron and phosphorus, which have a positive effect on the process of hematopoiesis in the body, its use is recommended as a prevention of anemia and atherosclerosis. Pumpkin is also useful in liver and kidney disease. Pumpkin is an excellent regulator of digestion. Due to the high content of pectin helps to eliminate cholesterol from the body.